Definition: Jones (2009) defines Institutional racism as the structures, policies, practices, and norms resulting in differential access to the goods, services, and opportunities of society and race”.
Application: In community development work, a community organizer needs to assess for any sign of institutional racism, when working with a community, and then work to break that barrier. For example, in Detroit there was no source of fresh vegetables within walking distance for some residents, this is an example of differential access to goods and services that is establish by Institutional racism.
Adaption: This theory could be applied in school setting by the teachers to make sure that students’ academic performance is not affected by institutional racism. If that is the case, teachers need to take necessary measures to reverse it.